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characters The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution Free download The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution 100 Read & Download º PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Ú Alan Taylor Hite people are striving so much to get rich and to heap up treasures in this world which they cannot carry with them to the next They cherished the collective security maintained by expecting generosity from the fortunate to the needy Instead of storing up wealth prospering chiefs accumulated prestige by gifts to their kin and to the hungry and ragged These values of hospitality and reciprocity spread resources through the seasons and across a village sustaining a rough euality No one starved in an Irouois village unless all did so If paltry by colonial standards the material wants of the Irouois exceeded those of their ancestors The eighteenth century Irouois relied upon traders to provide European manufactured goods that exceeded the Indian technology to make In return for furs the Irouois procured metal knives hatchets axes hoes and kettlesall vastly better than their stone and wood predecessors And with cloth mirrors glass and silver jewelry and alcohol the traders provided new luxuries to the Indians Above all they needed guns gunpowder and metal shot for hunting and war Dependence on that imported technology also entailed an Indian reliance on colonial blacksmiths and gunsmiths to repair metal tools and weapons In personal appearance the Irouois conveyed a mix of tradition and adaptation of America and Europe of subsistence and commerce and of ease and pride Except for moccasins on their feet the Irouois donnedBritish cloth than traditional buckskin In warm weather men wore littlethan a loose linen shirt over their shoulders and a loincloth held by a leather belt Womens attire consisted of a linen shirt and a cotton petticoat In colder weather both men and women wrapped themselves in woolen blankets while men covered their lower limbs with leather leggings Both genders delighted in abundant jewelry especially silver worn as bracelets gorgets rings and earrings Women and older men wore their hair long but warriors shaved the sides of their head to leave a scalp lock on top The young men also plucked their facial hair out by the roots Gender and age rather than social class structured Irouois labor Assisted by children women tended the crops and gathered the wild plants while men fished hunted waged war and conducted diplomacy Mens activities took them deep into the forest and far from the villages Conseuently those villages and their fields belonged to the women the enduring people of the community They controlled the harvest and determined the location of their village No land could be forsaken without their consent In the Mohawks explained to Johnson that women were the Truest Owners being the persons who labour on the Lands The Mohawk matrons then assured Johnson that they would keep their Land and did not chuse to part with the same to be reduced to make Brooms The Mohawks well knew the Algonuian Indians of the Hudson Valley and New England as negative reference points as native peoples who had lost most of their lands and become the impoverished makers of brooms and baskets for colonial consumers Chiefs The Irouois dispersed and divided political power from a dread of coercion They understood the world as constantly embroiled in a struggle between the forces of good and evil of life and death of peace and war Because those conflicts raged within every nation village and person all forms of power had to be dispersed and closely watched to preserve the freedom of a people An Irouois nation was an ethnic and linguistic group divided into several jealous villages and subdivided by internal factions led by rival chiefs Although one village usually was a bit larger andprestigious hosting the council fire of the nation the chiefs there could only admonish and advise but never command their fellow people in other smaller villages No nation was united under the rule of a single headman although one chief might enjoyhonor as the keeper of sacred objectsprincipally wampum beltsand as the host of public councils Instead of representing an entire village much less the collective nation a chief represented a particular clan which the Irouois called a tribe Most Irouois nations had three clans or tribes Bear Wolf and Turtle A clan consisted of several extended families related through the maternal line matrilineages Johnson noted that a chiefs clout depended on the number of Warriors under his influence which are seldomthan his own relations The proper chief had been accomplished in war but mellowed by time becoming elouent patient tactful dignified and methodical The duty of a chief was to keep his head while others were losing theirs In Sayenueraghta a Seneca described the ideal chief as a wise dispassionate man who thinks much thinks slowly with great caution deliberation before he speaks his whole mind A proper chief worked to soothe the discontented to calm troubles and to keep the peace by sage advice Unable to command people the chief exercised influence through persuasion which rested upon his prestige example and reason A bullying chief risked his life to assassination by disgruntled warriors The clan chiefs or sachems had to share village authority with warriors and matrons The senior women of the matrilineages chose the chiefs who represented their clan on the village council Although birth within the proper matrilineage mattered the clan mothers favored merit and personality in determining their choice In effect chiefs were s.
characters The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution
characters The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution Free download The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution 100 Read & Download º PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Ú Alan Taylor Property In July as Joseph Brant traveled east to join Wheelocks school Sir William Johnson headed west ascending the Mohawk River into the country of the Six Nations his five boats hauled thirty eight soldiers their euipment and presents for the Indians The traveling party also included his nineteen year old son John and their cousin and secretary Guy Johnson In high spirits the Johnsons anticipated a victory tour in Indian country to consolidate the recent British conuest of French Canada With the French banished from North America British officials expected easily to control the Indians Instead Johnson found pervasive Indian dread and disgust even among the nearby Mohawks who had so long cooperated with him As British allies the Mohawks had lost about warriors half of their men during the recent war with the French In return for that heavy sacrifice the Mohawks expected Johnson to protect their villages against conniving land speculators and encroaching settlers Frustrated in that expectation the Mohawks complained bitterly to Johnson who reported that they felt in danger of being made slaves and having their lands taken from them at pleasure which they added would confirm what the French have often told the Six Nations Preaching patience Johnson promised justice to the Mohawksbut New Yorks leaders and settlers kept breaking his every promise Fed up the Mohawks threatened to move away deeper within Indian country That possibility delighted settlers and speculators who lusted after Mohawk land but alarmed Johnson who relied on his special Mohawk connection to influence the Six Nations Without nearby and content Mohawks as allies his superintendency would become impotent Proceeding upriver beyond the Mohawk country Johnson reached German Flats colonial New Yorks westernmost settlement There Johnson met Oneidas who also bitterly complained of encroaching settlers The chief Conoghuieson warned Johnson that the Oneida settlers would fight rather than lose their lands Instead of consolidating British power over the Indians the conuest of Canada threatened to unravel the alliance with the Six Nations that was essential to frontier security In helping the British to attack Canada the Irouois had miscalculated for they had never expected such a rapid and complete collapse by the French forces No longer could the Indians play off the French against the British to maintain Irouois independence to maximize their presents and to ensure trade competition A British general explained They saw us sole Masters of the Country the Balance of Power broke and their own Conseuence at an End Instead of being courted by two Nations a Profusion of Presents made by both and two Markets to trade at they now depend upon one Power That dependence exposed Irouoia to land hungry colonists THE SIX NATIONS The Irouois pursued a mixed subsistence strategy combining horticulture gathering fishing and hunting In fields of fertile alluvial soil they cultivated mounds of maize topped by climbing beans and surrounded by low lying suashes and pumpkins After the fall harvest the natives dispersed into the hills occupying many small camps tended by women while the men pursued bear deer and beaver for meat and pelts Returning to their villages they spent the early spring collecting maple sap to make a brown sugar After planting their crops in May the Irouois spent June and July in fishing camps strung along the lakes and streams Having exhausted the previous years harvest the people sought relief by catching eels salmon trout and whitefish During that hungry season the women and children also gathered wild onions followed by strawberries raspberries whortleberries and blackberries From the forest floor they also harvested ginseng for sale to colonial merchants This mobile but seasonally patterned way of life conserved most of the forest and streamsand their wild thingsover the generations Native use contrasted with the colonists drive to clear most of the forest to provide pastures for cattle and fields for grain Compared to the colonists the Irouois used land extensively rather than intensively The natives did clear and cultivate compact fields near their villages but they kept most of their domain as a forest to sustain wild plants and animals To colonial eyes the Irouois peoples wasted their land by keeping a wilderness but the Indians exploited their domain in ways that the colonists did not understand Most colonists disdained the Irouois as improvident living from hand to mouth for want of incentives for accumulating private property Indeed the Irouois considered it foolish and demeaning to labor beyond what they needed to subsist Sir William noted The Indians are a Lazy people naturally Enemies to Labour But colonial charges of Indian indolence focused on men seen during the warm months in their villages or on visits to colonial towns periods and places of male inactivity and heavy drinking Colonial observers rarely saw Indian men during their strenuous winter hunts when they endured severe hardships pursuing game for miles over rugged terrain in bitter weather The colonial view also discounted the evident industry of native women in cultivating and gathering which the colonists treated as exploitation by lazy husbands and fathers John Heckewelder a missionary noted that the Indians disliked the competitive and acuisitive values of the colonists They wonder that the w.Read & Download º PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Ú Alan Taylor
characters The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution Free download The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution 100 Read & Download º PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Ú Alan Taylor O many male ambassadors representing matrilineages Once chosen a chief ordinarily served for life but an incompetent could be ousted by the matrons of his clan Chiefs promoted harmony and peace but they could not always succeedespecially beyond the nation among outsiders without kinship ties to the Irouois Conseuently the people also needed to summon the darker powers of their young warriors They could not and should not possess the chiefly virtues of calm forbearance Instead warriors needed to be decisive violent cruel and prouduick to take offense and terrible in seeking vengeance Without formidable warriors no people could remain free In theory chiefs restrained warriors but ambitious young men longed for the honors of war to demonstrate their courage and prowess Bristling under restraint by their chiefs warriors sometimes forced a war by raiding foes or by killing their emissaries But women could compel the warriors to make peace by withholding the food needed for long distance raids Within their villages the Irouois dreaded contention and coercion preferring the deliberative search for consensus however elusive That search led to highly formalized speeches in public council by chiefs closely watched by all the villagers If those deliberations failed to reach an acceptable consensus the people agreed to disagree permitting factions and families to chart varying courses For example during the imperial wars the Oneidas disagreed on a common front so some helped the French and others the British while most clung to neutrality If a village majority did commit to a provocative decision the disgruntled voted with their feet by moving away Over the years village populations ebbed and surged as some people moved out and others moved in Driven by the elusive ideal of consensus this fission helped to sustain that idealif not the realityby temporarily ridding villages of the most discontented The lack of coercive power within the Six Nations frustrated colonial officials who hoped to command the Indians by co opting their chiefs Early and often those chiefs tried to explain their limited influence over hotheaded warriors or over another village Indeed a chief lost influence if he did colonial bidding by coercing his own people Johnson eventually gave up trying to mandate head chiefs for each of the Six Nations explaining that the extreme jealousy which the Northern Indians entertain of one another would render a particular choice of any one of them unserviceable and make his Nation pay no regard to him Noting that chiefs had greater power in the past or at a distance from the settlements Johnson concluded that colonial meddling had weakened authority in Indian villages But of course Johnson was the consummate meddler The imperial wars diminished the authority of the sachems Eager to recruit warriors colonial leaders treated the war chiefs as the real locus of power in an Irouois village Conseuently they could drive hard bargains to secure abundant presents including weapons and ammunition By redistributing this largesse to their followers war chiefs built their influence at the expense of the sachems Indeed warriors and their war chiefs waxed increasingly arrogant In the Seneca war chiefs assured Johnson We are in fact the People of Conseuence for Managing Affairs Our Sachems being generally a parcell of Old People who say Much but who Mean or Act very little From a colonial perspective the Irouois lived in virtual anarchyowing to the crisscrossing interests of chiefs warriors and women the elusive ideal of consensus and the powerful animus against coercion And yet native villages were remarkably harmoniousexcept when alcohol abounded Heckewelder noted They have no written laws but they have usages founded on the most strict principles of euity and justice They are peaceable sociable obliging charitable and hospitable among themselves Their public councils were dignifiedin stark contrast to the rancor of colonial politics Johnson marveled All their deliberations are conducted with extraordinary regularity and decorum They never interrupt him who is speaking nor use harsh language whatever may be their thoughts Kinship and conversation framed the obligations duties and norms of an Indian village Authority ultimately lay in the constant flow of talk which regulated reputation through the variations of praise and ridicule celebration and shaming The close uarters of Indian villages kept few secrets and enforced moral norms by rendering individuals hypersensitive to their standing in the eyes of kin and neighbors Humiliated and shunned a thief or rapist could not endure in an observant gossiping village Conseuently theft and rape were virtually unknown among the Irouois From the Hardcover editionA superbly researched work of history forces us to look anew at the American Revolution from a tragic and necessary perspective The Washington Post Book WorldMeticulously researchedby immersing us in its details Taylor makes us see the Irouois as active shapers of American history and their struggle to keep their homeland as part of our shared American past San Diego Union TribuneIn this dramatic precise account Taylor describes an American Revolution with dire conseuences for native peoples fascinating A stunningly alternative American Revolution The Boston GlobeFormidably researched and display s a breathtaking intellectual understanding The Denver Po.
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- The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution
- Alan Taylor
- 01 September 2020